We posit that when hydrologists help watershed groups understand the processes controlling water quality and quantity, and when managers and stakeholders connect these processes to social, economic and legal issues then transboundary cooperation in policymaking and water management is most effective. The distinctive physical and socioeconomic characteristics of the basin as well as differences in institutional regulations, water law issues, and their local implementations in Arizona and Sonora are discussed. We illustrate how stakeholders and scientific researchers in both countries strive to balance ecosystem needs with human demands to create new, integrated basin management.
Its purpose is to coordinate and cooperate in the implementation of comprehensive policies and projects to meet the long-term water needs of residents within the U. The Partnership consists of 21 local, state, and Federal agencies, NGO's and a private water company. In it was recognized by Congress in Section of Public Law and required to make annual reports to Congress on its progress in bringing the basin water budget into balance by The Partnership is dedicated to science-based decision making.
This presentation will provide an overview of the evolution of natural resources research in the binational U.
It will discuss the transition through science and research for understanding; to science for addressing a need; to integrated policy development and science. At each stage the research conducted becomes more interdisciplinary, first across abiotic disciplines hydrology, remote sensing, atmospheric science , then a merging of abiotic and biotic disciplines adding ecology and plant physiology , and finally a further merging with the social sciences and policy and decision making for resource management.
Lessons learned from this experience will be reviewed with the intent providing guidance to ensure that hydrologic and watershed research is socially and scientifically relevant and will directly address the needs of policy makers and resource.
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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the degradation to propose strategies for remediation and recovery of agricultural soils of San Pedro Lagunillas, Nayarit, Mexico; considering physical and chemical properties. Soils maintained with natural vegetation but slightly grazed and agricultural soils used for more than 20 years for the production of several crops, were compared.
Eight sites were studied four cultivated and four uncultivated, each agricultural lands cultivated was located at a distance of 30 to 80 m from its counterpart or soil with natural vegetation uncultivated. Samples were obtained from the following layers: 0 to 10, 10 to 20 and 20 to 30 cm. The variables evaluated were: particles smaller than 2 mm, pH, organic matter, extractable phosphorus, exchangeable potassium, calcium and magnesium; soil texture and water infiltration rate.
It was concluded that traditional farming practices led to adverse changes in soil chemical properties, in the upper 20 cm soil layer. The overall results in this work evident the need to take appropriate measures to prevent the physical and chemical degradation of cultivated soils in order to preserve this resource and maintain their productivity.
Remote-sensing models have become increasingly popular for identifying, characterizing, monitoring, and predicting avian habitat but have largely focused on single bird species.
The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI has been shown to positively correlate with avian abundance and richness and has been successfully applied to southwestern riparian systems which are uniquely composed of narrow bands of vegetation in an otherwise dry landscape. Desert riparian ecosystems are important breeding and stopover sites for many bird species but have been degraded due to altered hydrology and land management practices.
We also investigated how vegetation and physical features measured locally compared to those data that can be gathered through remote-sensing. We found that NDVI has statistically significant relationships with both avian abundance and species richness, although is better applied at the individual species level. However, the amount of variation explained by even our best models was quite low, suggesting that NDVI habitat models may not presently be an accurate tool for extensive modeling of avian communities. Bedrock aquifers of eastern San Juan County, Utah.
This study is one of a series of studies appraising the waterbearing properties of the Navajo Sandstone and associated formations in southern Utah. Some of the water-yielding formations are grouped into aquifer systems. Discharge from the ground-water reservoir to the San Juan River between gaging stations at Four Corners and Mexican Hat is about 66 cubic feet per second.
The N aquifer is the main aquifer in the study area. Recharge by infiltration of precipitation is estimated to be 25, acre-feet per year. A major ground-water divide exists under the broad area east of Monticello. The thickness of the N aquifer , where the sedimentary section is fully preserved and saturated, generally is to 1, feet.
Hydraulic conductivity values obtained from aquifer tests range from 0. The total volume of water in transient storage is about 11 million acre-feet. Well discharge somewhat exceeded 2, acre-feet during Discharge to the San Juan River from the N aquifer is estimated to be 6. Water quality ranges from a calcium bicarbonate to sodium chloride type water.
Streams of the Southwest receive enormous inputs of sediment during storm events in the monsoon season due to the high intensity rainfall and large percentages of exposed soil in the semi-arid landscape. In the Upper San Pedro River, with a watershed area of approximately square kilometers, particle size ranges from clays to boulders with large fractions of sand and gravel. This study focuses on the mechanics of scour and fill on a stable point bar. An innovative technique using seven co-located scour chains and liquid-filled, load-cell scour sensors characterized sediment dynamics over the point bar during the monsoon season of July to September The sensors were set in two transects to document sediment dynamics near the head and toe of the bar.
Scour sensors record area-averaged sediment depths while scour chains measure scour and fill at a point. The average area covered by each scour sensor is Because scour sensors have never been used in a system similar to the San Pedro , one goal of the study was to test their ability to detect changes in sediment load with time in order to determine the extent of scour and fill during monsoonal storms.
Because of the predominantly unconsolidated nature of the substrate it was hypothesized that dune bedforms would develop in events less than the 1-year flood. The weak monsoon season produced only two storms that completely inundated the point bar, both less than the 1-year flood event.
The first event, 34 cms, produced net deposition in areas where Johnson grass had been present and was now buried. The scour sensor at the lowest elevation, in a depression which serves as a secondary channel during storm events, recorded scour during the rising limb of the hydrograph followed by pulses we interpret to be the passage of dunes.
The second event, although smaller at 28 cms, resulted from rain more than 50 km upstream and had a much longer peak and a slowly declining falling limb. During the.
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Examining the life history of an individual from Solcor 3, San Pedro de Atacama: Combining bioarchaeology and archaeological chemistry. Detailed life history information using multiple lines of evidence including the identification of geographic origins, health, and body use indicators, can be used to elucidate the complex process of acculturation in the San Pedro de Atacama oases of northern Chile during the Middle Horizon. This paper presents the results of bioarchaeological and archaeological chemical analyses of the skeletal remains of an adult male tomb 50, catalog number from the cemetery of Solcor 3 ca.
AD Strontium isotope ratios in human tooth enamel reveal information about where a person lived during their childhood, when enamel was being formed. Individual showed strontium isotope ratios decidedly outside the range of the local San Pedro de Atacama strontium isotope signature. Given these data implying that individual was originally from elsewhere, an examination of his health status, social role, and mortuary context provides insight into the treatment of foreigners in San Pedro de Atacama. Our data support the argument that individual 's foreign birth did not hinder his later assimilation into Atacameno society.
He was buried in a local cemetery with a typical mortuary assemblage for a male of this time and no strong evidence of possible foreign origin. Skeletal indicators of diet and activity patterns do not distinguish individual from the local population, suggesting that his lifestyle was similar to that of other Atacamenos. Therefore, our analyses suggest that individual 's acculturation into Atacameno society during his adult life was nearly complete and he retained little to no indication of his probable foreign birth. Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal and downstream water quality variations of the San Pedro River in Chihuahua, Mexico.
Water samples were collected monthly from October to August in triplicate, totaling water samples. The five sampling locations were: below the Francisco I. In addition, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity and total and fecal coliformes were determined. The statistical analysis considered a factorial treatment design; where factor A was the location point and factor B was sampling date. In addition, a multivariate technique looking for principal components was performed.
The As level must be considered for a red flag to the communities along the Rio San Pedro because both the monthly average level 0. The multivariate analysis showed a predominant aggregation at the LP location, meaning that there was a predominance of As, Sr, Fe and Li.
At the rest of the locations the elements did not present a tendency for aggregation. Statistics applied to sampling month showed that December, January, March and April were aggregated in a negative quadrant of component 1 indicating a predominance of V, Ni, Be, Fe and As. Overall, the results confirmed that this stretch of the San Pedro River is contaminated with heavy metals and other contaminants that might affect human health as well as the health of the ecosystem. The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal and downstream water quality variations of the San Pedro River in Chihuahua, Mexico.
Estos comprenden el periodo de a , reportando mediciones de un total de d as. El valor medio de la opacidad al cenit obtenido fue de 0. Los valores de la opacidad al cenit durante el d a y la noche fueron 0.
Durante el verano, se encontr o un marcado ascenso en la opacidad a We summarize results of recent paleomagnetic, structural, petrologic and magnetic fabric studies along an east-west 60 km long transect across the Peninsular Ranges Batholith PRB in north-central Baja California. The transect includes both magnetite rich plutons from the western sector of the PRB, and ilmenite rich plutons from the eastern sector, as well as plutons on the eastern and western side of major tectonic discontinuities.
When rotated into a pre- Gulf of California position, the pole We find strong evidence in support of tilt of the plutons from thermochronological, structural, and geobarometric data. These data will be discussed elsewhere. Here we focus on magnetic fabric data. This fabric is interpreted to result from magma flow.
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Coastal marine sediments support a high abundance of mircoorganisms which play key roles in the cycling of nutrients, trace metals, and carbon, yet little is known about many of the cofactors essential for their growth, such as the B-vitamins. The suite of B-vitamins B1, B2, B6, B7, B12 are essential across all domains of life for both primary and secondary metabolism.
Therefore, studying sediment concentrations of B-vitamins can provide a biochemical link between microbial processes and sediment geochemistry. Our results show high concentrations 0. Thiamin B1 concentrations were elevated nM , consistent with previous pore water measurements showing sediments could be a source of B1 to the ocean.
The flavins riboflavin [B2] and flavin mononucleotide[FMN] , molecules utilized in external electron transfer, showed a distinct increase with depth nM. Interestingly, the flavin profiles showed an inverse trend to dissolved Fe Fe decreases with depth providing a potential link to culture experiments which have shown extracellular flavin release to be a common trait in some metal reducers. As some of the first B-vitamin measurements made in marine sediments, these results illustrate the complex interaction between the microbial community and surrounding geochemical environment and provide exciting avenues for future research.
Vazquez, Cristina, E-mail: vazquez cnea. Experimental study was undertaken to identify inorganic pigments and the technique used in their confection; and, in this way, try to add information about their local origin. Therefore special emphasis was put to infer technologies used in the manufacturing of these paintings. Elemental analysis was performed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry TXRF and complemented by optical and polarized light microscopy. Microsampling was carefully done over areas of the paintings which were damaged and where a small additional loss will not be noticed.
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